최근 들어 아파트에 대한 계획방향은 거주자의 삶의 질을 증진시키는 방향으로 변해가고 있으며 이를 위해 디자인 차별화를 추구하는 방향으로 발전하고 있다. 이러한 경향을 반영한 기존의 아파트 디자인 차별화 연구를 살펴보면, 저층부 입면의 차별화, 특히 아파트 주동출입부에 대한 특화계획이 중요한 요인 중 하나로 파악되고 있다. 아파트 주동출입부는 단순히 내부와 외부를 연결해주는 역할뿐만 아니라 이웃과의 교류를 형성할 수 있는 공간으로서의 역할도 커져가고 있다. 주요 건설사에서는 이러한 아파트 주동출입부에 대한 특화계획을 주동 저층부 특화계획과 함께 연계하여 적극적으로 개발하고 있으며 이를 자사 아파트 브랜드 홍보의 주요 요소로 사용하고 있는 추세이다. 하지만 이러한 주동출입부에 대한 사람들의 관심과 건설사의 계획현황, 디자인 차별화를 위한 요소로서의 중요도에 비하여 관련 연구는 미비한 상황이다.
따라서 본 연구는 다음과 같은 목적을 가진다. 첫째, 아파트 주동출입부의 특화 계획요소를 설정하고 적용현황을 시기별로 비교분석하여 계획의 흐름을 파악한다. 둘째, 아파트 주동출입부 특화 계획요소에 대한 선호도를 파악한다. 셋째, 아파트 주동출입부 특화 계획요소의 적용현황과 선호도를 비교분석하여 사용자를 중심으로 하는 아파트 주동출입부 중점 특화계획요소의 유형을 파악하는 것을 최종 목적으로 한다.
본 연구의 결과를 바탕으로 향후 아파트 주동출입부 특화계획요소에 대한 사용자 중심의 계획방향을 위한 제언을 해보면 다음과 같다. 우선 주동출입부 유형 중 저층부입면디자인특화와 필로티공간 모두를 특화할 수 있는 ‘혼합형’ 계획에 대한 고려가 필요하다. 둘째, 사람들이 적극적으로 선호하고 있는 주동출입부 내 커뮤니티공간의 계획이 필요하다. 셋째, 경비실의 경우 경제적 이유로 계획되지 않게 되었지만 사람들의 선호도가 높으므로 높은 평수의 고급화된 단지에서는 계획할 필요성이 있다. 넷째, 주동출입부 특화계획요소 중 유니버설디자인의 경우 각 건설사에서 조금 더 적극적인 홍보를 통하여 사람들의 선호도 및 인지도를 높일 필요성이 있겠다.
Recently, the scheme and direction on apartment has shifted to the direction to improve the quality of life for residents, and for this purpose, it has advanced to pursuing for design differentiation. Looking into the studies on design differentiation for existing apartment that reflected the above tendency, the differentiation in the dimension on lower stories, particular, the specialized design plan on the entrance to main apartment units, has been one of the important factors.The main unit entrance of apartment undertakes the role not only as connecting inside and outside but also as the space to form exchanges with others. Major construction companies have the specialized design plan for this type of main unit access part of apartment to make active development along with the lower-story specialization plan, and this is used as a key element of the brand PR for their respective apartments. However, there are minimal studies done on the issue compared to its importance as interest of people on this main unit entrance as well as the factor for the design differentiation of construction companies. Therefore, this study has the following purposes. First, set the elements of specialized design factors of the main unit entrance of apartment and compare and analyze the application status for each period to find out the flow of plans. Second, find out the preferred type for each specialized design factors of the main unit entrance of apartment. And third, compare and analyze the preferred type and application status of the specialized design factors for the main unit entrance of apartment to find out the major types of the specialized design factors of the user-oriented main unit entrance of apartment. Subject and scope for the studies to find out the preferred type and application status for each specialized design factors of the main unit entrance of apartment are shown as follows. First of all, as the subject for comparing and analyzing the application status of specialized design factors of the main unit entrance of apartment, it compares and analyzes first new city and second new city, and the representative city for first new city was Bundang new city and representative city for second new city was subjected for Dongtan new city. For each city, 20 complexes were surveyed for a total of 40 complexes. In addition, in order to survey the apartment complex of certain size or larger and the same condition, it was limited to complex with 500 households or larger but 1500 households or less. The subjects of questionnaire for finding out the preference of residents on the specialized design factors for the main unit entrance of apartment were undertaken for 120 residents in the capital region.Under this study, the specialized design factors of user-oriented main unit entrance of apartment is analyzed for the PR material of the major construction companies with the advanced study for the classification of element for the specialized design factors to largely classify into following ‘low-story dimension design’, ‘Universal design', ‘piloti space’, and ‘inner space’.Through the tendency in plans and questionnaires formulated through the analysis of the application status on the basis of the specialized design factors of the classified main unit entrance of apartment, the result of comparison and analysis for the preferred type of each of the formulated specialized design factors is shown as follows. The type for main unit entrance of apartment was applied for the ‘protrude-type’ as the highest ratio, but people are shown to prefer the ‘blend-type’ the most. The main unit access part direction was shown to have the plan flow with the change from the present ‘one-way’ to ‘both ways’ and people prefer the ‘two-ways’ more. The roof type of main unit access part is planed around the ‘flat roof-type’ and people preferred more for the ‘flat roof-type’. The height of the main unit access part tends to prefer higher plan for ‘1.0H' to ’3.0H' but people prefer ‘2.5H' the most, but for other heights, the ratio of preference trend showed similarity. The external wall finish of the main unit entrance tended to show the plan to finish from the existing coating finish to granite finish and people showed the preference for ‘granite type 2’ the most. The entry method of main unit entrance is planed for ‘stairs +sloped’ type and people prefer the ‘stairs +sloped’ type the most. The slope type has the plans to change from the existing ‘ㄱ-shape’ to ‘1-type’ and ‘ㄷ-shape’ and people prefer the ‘1-shape’ the most. The slope railway type has the high ratio from the existing ‘closure-type’ to ‘semi-penetrating-type’ and ‘penetration-type’, and people preferred ‘semi-penetration-type’ the most. The sloped floor finishing has the change from the existing ‘concrete’ finishing basis to the ‘granite’ finishing and people preferred the ‘granite’ fishing the most.The piloti ceiling height is planned for ‘1.0H', but people preferred to plan for ’1.5H or more (84.2%)‘. The functional structure of the piloti space has the tendency to plan for ‘passage + access + storage’ and ‘passage+access + storage + resting’, but people prefer ‘passage +resting’ and ‘passage+access + resting’. The interior ceiling height of the main unit access part tends to show the plan from the existing height of '1.0H' to ‘3.0H', but people did not show special preference on the interior ceiling height of the main unit entrance. The security office inside the main unit entrance was installed but there was no case of installing it lately/ But people wanted to install the security office with the preference survey result. The inner community space of the main unit entrance was not planned, but people want the community space plan, and they prefer the ‘space separation-type’ from them. The mail collection box type has changed from the existing ‘route-type’ to ‘space separation-type’, but people prefer the same ratio for both types. The inner wall finishing of the main unit entrance had the ratio of using the stone materials, such as, granite, marble and others, and people had high showing of preference ratio of types to use the stone materials for 93.3%.On the basis of the result of this study, the following is the proposal for user-oriented plan direction of the specialized design factors of the main unit entrance of apartment. First, from the main unit entrance part types, there is a need to consider the 'mixed-type' plan to specialize both low-story dimension for design specialization and piloti space. Second, there is a need to plan the community space in the main unit access part where people actively prefer. Third, for the security office, it is not planned for economic reasons, but the preference of people is high that it may be needed to plan in larger-sized and higher class complexes. Fourth, for the case of universal design from the specialized design factors of the main unit entrance, construction companies shall make active PR to heighten the preference of people and improved recognition.