본 연구의 목적은 지속가능한 초고층 공동주택 주거환경지표에 대한 중요도와 가중치를 도출하여 계획 시 참고하기 위한 것이다.
1990년대 이후로 초고층 공동주택 공급은 꾸준히 늘어나고 있으며 보다 나은 환경에 대한 주민의 요구도 증가하고 있다. 따라서, 초고층 공동주택에 거주하는 주민의 라이프스타일의 변화에 대응하기 위한 지속가능한 주거환경평가지표가 필요하다.
전반적인 주거환경을 평가하기 위해, 주거환경평가지표는 건축계획요소 뿐만아니라 주민의 심리적 영향, 사회적 기능, 경제적 요인 등을 고려해야 한다. 주거환경평가지표는 '시설인프라', '시각형태', '공간사용', '사회적 관계','운영관리'의 5가지 요인으로 구성되어 있다. 하위항목 및 건축적 세부항목을 포함하고 있는 각각의 요소는 선행연구와 친환경건축물 인증심사기준 및 CASBEE와 같은 친환경 건축물 성능평가도구를 통하여 보완되었다. 전문가 조사는 AHP(계층화분석법) 방법으로 분석되었으며, 다음과 같이 요약된다.
조사결과, ‘공간사용 요인’이 가장 중요한 비중을 차지하며 ‘시설인프라’, ‘운영관리’, ‘사회적 관계’, ‘시각형태’ 순으로 가중치가 높게 나타났다. 각각의 지표에 대한 하위기준에서는 ‘조망’, ‘공간기능’, ‘친환경 성능’, ‘쾌적성’, 그리고 ‘경제성’의 중요도가 가장 높다.
After 1990s, the supply of super high-rise apartments has been increased, because of the land use for economic efficiency and the development of construction technologies. Moreover, as residents have shown interests in the quality of life recently, needs on the study on the residential quality indexes are increased to be adjusted to the changes on the notion of pursuing better life.
To evaluate overall residential environments, the residential quality indexes need to be conventionally concerned with psychological effect, social function, economic factor and others as well as design elements. Therefore, this study aims to find out the residential quality indexes of super high-rise apartments and the priority order of factors in relation to the residents' quality of life.
The process of this study is; First, through theoretical analysis of the preceding cases about residential satisfaction and apartment housing, sorted out 5 precedence factors with 19 architectural criteria. The residential quality indexes are consisted of 5 precedence factors: 'facility infrastructure', 'visual and formal factors', 'spatial use', 'social relationship', 'maintenance and management'. Each factor, containing 19 architectural criteria and architectural elements, is supplemented for sustainability through referencing preceding studies and other evaluation tools such as Green Building Certification Criteria, CASBEE. Second, the survey of the residential quality indexes is proceeded by Experts-oriented survey, analyzed by the way of AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process). Third, the data from the survey is analyzed with EC2000(Expert Choice 2000) in 2 purposes, one is to search the priority order of architectural factors and the other is to search the weight of each factors. The reason for estimation of weight is to allot the points to the 5 precedence factors and 19 architectural criteria and estimation of weight makes it possible to estimate the residential quality quantitatively. As most of apartment has 20 floors above ground, this study defines that the super high-rise is the apartment that has above 30 stories.
The conclusions of this study are; In results of the factors, The most important factor is 'spatial use(29.5%)'. This result means that experts place a great deal of weight in the basic function of a plan such as shape, organization, arrangement of space. In addition, floor heights, proportion of openings, changes of space use and circulation systems can be regarded as elements that must be considered specially on the super high-rise apartment. The changes of space use contain the customer oriented building plan and application system of plan ,concerned with remodelling in the future. By order of high weight, 5 precedence factors, 'facility infrastructure(19.5%)', 'maintenance and management(18.9%)', 'social relationship(17.3%), and 'visual and formal factors(14.8%)', are sequently placed.
In result of criteria in each factors, weights of 'view', 'spatial function', 'sustainable efficiency', 'amenity', and 'economic' are high ranked in each factor. In this study that function placed at a high rate in relation to the energy efficiency of facilities, opposite preceding study, the important rate of the sustainable function was low. This results shows that composing residents' understanding about the importance of sustainable function are relatively low in comparing with experts. As a result, the development of way is needed to make residents understanding on the importance, and public informations of sustainable function in apartment housing.
The priority level of amenity in facility infrastructure, divided 4 levels, is revealed the highest. As elements of amenity; sound, thermal, light and air environments are made it possible to measure the numerical values, it is needed to establish the quantitative assessment method such as standardization of wall thickness on requirement of light, prevention of noise. In maintenance and management, although weights of the economic elements was placed first, it is true that improving the residential functions in quality needs more consideration on the facility management such as systemization of services than on the economic elements.
In priority results by a type of occupation, the weight of visual/formal factors and spatial use were higher in architectural design group. On the other hand, the weight of facility infrastructure and social relationship were relatively higher in study and research groups. In maintenance and management, numerical values of importance rate were similarly placed in two groups, but in architectural design groups, it ranked highest in the whole priority orders in comparing with study and research group.
This study about residential quality indexes substantially has a limit to contain as whole architectural factors and elements as possible. In addition, kind of group is so limited that various opinions are not reflected on the results of the residential quality indexes. However, on the basis of the preceeding work, This study presents more developmental indexes and the direction of architectural plan about super high-rise apartments. Also, this results can be used practically as a method of conventional assessment of quality of living in decision making process of the business and residents' satisfaction survey.