Purpose: This study investigated the long-term adverse effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in offspring.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 298 offspring (202 offspring of GDM mothers and 96 offspring of mothers with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]) participated in the study. CVD risk factors included elevated body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, body fat, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and glucose values measured with a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test.
Results: The BMI of offspring ≥ 5 years of age of GDM mothers was significantly higher than that of offspring of mothers with IGT when analysed according to age. In offspring of GDM mothers, CVD risk factors were positively correlated with age, except for lipid profiles. A significant negative relationship between age and BMI was observed in offspring of IGT mothers. The slope of the linear regression lines for BMI and fasting plasma insulin levels with age were significantly steeper for the offspring of GDM mothers than for those of IGT mothers.
Conclusions: We conclude that childhood obesity, as well as altered glucose metabolism influenced by the maternal uterine environment, is more likely with advancing years in the offspring of GDM mothers than in the offspring of IGT mothers.