Atmospheric particulate pollution has a serious impact on the ecological environment and human health. Studying the formation of particulate matter plays a vital role in controlling particulate matter and the formulation of relevant environmental policies. In this study, five kinds of single-component mineral oxides and three kinds of coal ash were used as research objects. The effects of time, humidity, light, gas concentration ratio and sea salt on the conversion of SO2 and NO2 on the surface of the particles were studied in a laboratory-made aerosol reactor by using ion chromatography (IC) detection technology and the law of the conversion of SO2 and NO2 on the particles was explored. Through experimental research, it was found that, a large amount of sulfate formed in the initial stage of the reaction, nitrate mainly formed in the middle and late stages of the reaction; high relative humidity (RH) and the addition of sea salt promotes the formation of sulfate on the particles; the gas concentration ratio affected the formation of sulfate and nitrate; ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation promoted the conversion of SO2 and NO2 on coal ash, but this promotion effect was not observed on alumina particles; the conversion efficiency of SO2 and NO2 on different particles was different.