Globalization has made supply chains more complex, involving multiple enterprises from different parts of the world, diversified product portfolios and making hard to deal with coordination. Organizations have responded to this challenge by implementing technologies, which allow them to gain competitive advantage. In this outlook, blockchain has a great potential to solve important glitches in supply chain transparency and traceability and forge a relationship between an organization and its stakeholders. This paper advances the literature on blockchain adoption in the supply chains by developing and statistically validating a model for understanding the determinants of blockchain adoption and the expected impact of blockchain adoption on sustainable supply chain management and firm performance. The model was developed based on the integration of Technology, Organization and Environment (TOE), Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) models, and Prospective Sensemaking Theory. The developed model was then estimated using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings revealed that there are important differences in blockchain adoption decisions across the countries. Whereas performance expectancy and social influence play important roles in blockchain adoption decisions in Kyrgyz Republic case, effort expectancy and geographic scope of a firm were found to be significantly related to blockchain adoption intention in Republic of Korea case. The paper concludes with some important implications for theory research and useful insights for implementation strategies.