Graduate School of International Studies Ajou University
Bioenergy is a clean and green means energy source. Its use increases worries about its capability to maintain the rising consumption and its harmful impact on the ecosystem, especially in developing nations. These fears are extra leading in Ethiopia where there is a high population growth rate which leads to a high rate of deforestation mostly anticipated to the expansion of cultivated land and rises consumption for biomass energy. Ethiopia consumed an estimated 141,000 hectares of ecological forestry annually due to fuelwood collection, expansion of cultivated land, animal grazing and uses forestry for constructing materials. Usage of backward and ineffective biomass cooking tools along with application also worsens the challenge. It was observed that there has been a high-level of consumption of biomass energy reserves since more than 90 % of the population uses traditional cooking stoves that have an efficiency of less than 12%. The inefficiency of the cooking stove is also criticized for internal air pollution and respiratory illnesses. The objective of this thesis is to estimate the potential of the bioenergy-based resource through the comparison of the demand and supply, also to determine if bioenergy is sustainable for the Ethiopian context. Information throughout this thesis was obtained by using secondary data mostly from CSA (Central Statistical Agency), FAOSTAT (Food and Agricultural Agency Statistical), IEA (International Energy Agency) and MEFCC (Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change). The estimations used are from agricultural waste, forest residue, MSW and animal residue data, along with the estimated energy production for 2016, which is the base year, was calculated in this thesis to be 1691 PJ energy. This calculated result cannot meet the annual energy demand of 2016 was 1867 PJ, which is in not agree with the hypothesis of this thesis. This research identifies the sustainability of bioenergy and its use as a main resource which can be developed with further research.